Synthetic Biology: A New Era in Hydrocarbon Bioremediation
Crude oil is a viscous dark liquid resource composed by a mix of hydrocarbons which, after refining, is used for the elaboration of distinct products. A major concern is that many petroleum components are highly toxic due to their teratogenic, hemotoxic, and carcinogenic effects, becoming an environmental concern on a global scale, which must be solved through innovative, efficient, and sustainable techniques. One of the most widely used procedures to totally degrade contaminants are biological methods such as bioremediation. Synthetic biology is a scientific field based on biology and engineering principles, with the purpose of redesigning and restructuring microorganisms to optimize or create new biological systems with enhanced features. The use of this discipline offers improvement of bioremediation processes. This article will review some of the techniques that use synthetic biology as a platform to be used in the area of hydrocarbon bioremediation.